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The Bilateral Relationship Of The United States and Canada:  What Could This Relationship Do To Strengthen The North American Aerospace Defence Command?


Written By: Alexa Dominique Pascual


The US and Canada have one of the most successful relationships in the NATO and G20 alliance. Both nations have made successful deals in NAFTA ,the deal enhanced trade relations and the deal gave more support to farmers, workers and businesses. This agreement created more successful companies who participate in trade agreements . Because the deal plans to  eliminate tariffs. In this way, local products were successfully sold to each nation which promoted American, Canadian and Mexican culture in each state. (International Trade Administration, North American Free Trade Agreement)  Another example of an agreement that has been made by the two nations and other participating countries is the Paris Agreement which is about preventing the climate crisis from occurring. The Paris Agreement promises to eliminate the issue of global warming and to strengthen each nation who are vulnerable to climate change. Not only that, the agreement promotes “Sustainable Development Goals” which focuses on the prevention of poverty, the promotion of human rights and the importance of protecting the environment from the impacts that climate change could do to our world. (United Nations Climate Change, The Paris Agreement). 

Another agreement, that was also implemented is the “NEXUS” program which made it easier for Canadians and Americans to exchange visas and immigration applications crossing a shared land border. 

When it comes to defence and the security of each nation, the US and Canada developed a deal called the “North American Aerospace Defence Command” (NORAD).  The agreement was established in the year 1957. The agreement conducted control over each country’s aerospace against the Soviet Union in potential threats. A year later the agreement was finalized and renewed at the year of 1968. (North American Aerospace Defence Command, NORAD Agreement).  With these strong agreements and partnerships between nations, how could this improve each nation’s security? When it comes to potential attacks by international threats that threaten each citizen’s well-being and our national interests. Why is NORAD important in foreign policy and how does it maintain each country’s relationship to build a stronger alliance?  


Aerospace Control 


The ongoing evolution of the American and Canadian defence relationship has been one of the main priorities in defence policy, which strengthens operational readiness in the aerospace, protects the arctic from terrorist attacks and prevents cyber attacks. NORAD has been continuously protecting the US and Canada from harm, and preventing attacks like the 911 which was a catastrophe in American history. The partnership between nations will give the prevention of these issues to happen in home soil. Also, Russia has been aggressive for the past two years, especially in their invasion of Ukraine. Such issues like this matter is being prevented from taking action according to the policies of NORAD. Not only will this make the relationship of the US and Canada stronger, but also it will fully develop Canadian defence by having the US protect Canada and to collaborate with the Canadian military in protecting their national security. In May 2006, the agreement conducted a maritime warning mission which strengthened awareness in the approach of US and Canadian activities in maritime approaches and internal waterways. This made the policy stronger in terms of defending and protecting American and Canadian borders. (NORAD,North American Aerospace Defence Command). 

To fully fulfill the missions of NORAD, its responsibility is to protect the US president and the Canadian prime minister. The agreement being the only bi-national command worldwide brings the protection of Canada in a much greater place because of the strong military the US has. The US has the best military defence system worldwide will give Canada an excellent benefit for  protection against attack. Not only will the NATO alliance defend Canada but also the strongest NATO ally, The United States.  This brings both countries to benefit from one another, not just in trade, climate change, energy and immigration but also in their defence system. Canada is in an excellent place to have an ally to count on when the country needs help, and luckily the US is geographically close for them to be valuable in this strategy. 

The U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) benefits the defence system of both nations by facilitating global watch to sense upcoming attacks to both countries. This command not only protects the US with the leadership of the DOD, but also it protects Canadians as it does to American citizens, by collaborating with the Canadian Armed Forces. Especially right after the 911 attack, both nations’ military has to come up with different ways to protect national security. Such attack should be prevented, to save lives of our citizens and to be less vulnerable to terrorist attacks that will harm a nations well-being. In collaboration with the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the alliance and security of both nations will fully develop with shared ideas and shared military experts, as well as defence equipment will be beneficiary if ever there will be an attack implemented by international threats. In regards to the prevention of illegal drugs coming in to the country, NORAD also monitors and prevents aircrafts that carry illegal drugs to come into the border. With the collaboration of civilian law enforcement, the command has fully developed a warning mission to prevent illegal drugs to come in to the country. (U.S. Department of State,U.S. Relations With Canada, 2022)

The protection of our citizens is a must in terms of establishing peace and prosperity between nations. The strategy protects not just national interests but also individual citizens by preventing them from using illegal drugs that can potentially damage their health and cause death. NORAD also collaborates with civil authorities to combat threats that can harm our national security and to prevent attacks from happening on local soil. Canada can count on the US when it comes to defending and protecting citizens from harm. Not only will security be prioritized, but also both nations will benefit from one another in terms of bettering their economy and foreign policy, by continuously partnering up in policy development in terms of intelligence, defence and security. This will not only help the alliance become stronger but also it will increase development in each nations participation in international forums. 


Can NORAD protect the US and Canada against China?


Just, recently a spy balloon that is speculated that it was coming from China to spy on American and Canadian citizens and possibly interfere with cybersecurity. Cyberattacks could steal personal data, theft, ransomware and the denial of service. The act cyberattack can also negatively intervene in the banking system of any nation, by stealing money and personal information from citizens. Which every country is trying to prevent, in this way with the protection of our military the government can succesfully comabt such interference. In the United States, the Chinese government stole $20 million from US Covid relief benefits. Unfortunatley, small businesses and insurance funds that support citizens who are unemployed were the ones who were negatively affected by this catastrophe. The theft itself brought a disadvantage to the economic system of the United States because of the stolen money, which lowered funds for departments that give support to citizens.This greatly impacted civilians especially because they are the ones who are affected by the strategies the Chinese government is implementing. (NBC NEWS, Hackers linked to Chinese government stole millions in COVID benefits, Secret Service says)  That is why NORAD is very beneficiary for the protection of our national security because the US has the most advance equipment of stopping such crime, that could bring harm to our citizens by spying on them, stealing their private information. Not only that, if the strategy is not paid attention to China will also take advantage of social media to spread propaganda and disinformation to citizens. This will cause citizens to be confused on what is  factual and not, which could lead to potential conflict. That is why it is important for people to read the accurate  information that is reported in credible news articles. In this way, citizens will be more educated on accurate facts and that Chinese propaganda has been spreading across the country. (Rand Corporation, Chinese Disinformation Efforts on Social Media).

The Chinese air balloon was seen flown over Alaska and Canada which was reported by NORAD, which obviously became a threat to both nation’s national security. According to U.S. General Glen VanHerck, there was action taken over when the balloon was flown in Canadian airspace, which was shot down by the instruction of the U.S Military. Canadian Intelligence and the CIA have been continuously working together to gather evidence and analysis about threats that is damaging each nation’s national security. Which can provide accurate data to deliver to government officials to look upon and to act on the issue.  (NPR National Security, From tracking Santa to Chinese spy balloons, here’s what we know about NORAD, 2023)

The collaboration of the US and Canada has to continue to prosper to continue the increasing development of intelligence and defense policies, in this way each nation can benefit from each other’s strengths. The US being a military country with outstanding equipment could  not just can help Canada but also the entire NATO and G20 alliance if a country needs help in protecting its security. The threat that China continues to put upon nations will lessen potentially if each nation decides to contribute to putting their security agendas into the priority list. In this way, the manipulation of what the Chinese government is doing to foreign nationals will possibly weaken if each nation’s leadership strategy is properly implemented and enhanced. With the cooperation of both nations defence systems, cyberattack and terrorist attacks could be prevented with the full cooperation of intelligence agencies , the military and law enforcement agencies. Diplomacy between China and North America is still essential when it comes to trade negotiations to increase North American economic development. However, there are some limitations that the Chinese government should pay attention to. If the Chinese government decides to attack and to interfere on national security, then each nation has the authority to act upon the issue by defending its citizens. The alliance of US and Canada should continue to stay strong and to establish more military strategies that can strengthen each nations policy. Enhancing each nations agenda will greatly impact the action of protecting our lands from foreign threats. 


What could the US government and the Canadian government do to enhance this partnership?


As one the worlds strongest partnerships the Canadian Armed Forces and the U.S. military should continue to work together and to increase policy development to better the saftey of each nation. What makes North America strong is the close relationship both country have from trade agreements, immigration, climate change policies, military and intelligence. Canada and the US have an unstoppable relationship that continues to become stronger as more policies develop. This relationship has to be maintained inorder to fully protect citizens from harm and foreign interface. Both governments should enhance their policies and straegies in leading military action and communicate with each other on how to better protect our borders. With the powerful military of the US and the analytic work and think tanks of Canada the defense system of both nations will fully excel if partnership continues to strengthen. In this way, it will be more difficult for foreign threats to commit crime within our borders. The partnership and the agreements made by the US and Canada is what builds a better future and a safe future for our citizens to live on. 




(International Trade Administration, North American Free Trade Agreement,


(United Nations Climate Change, The Paris Agreement,


 (North American Aerospace Defense Command, NORAD Agreement,


(NORAD,North American Aerospace Defense Command,


(U.S. Department of State,U.S. Relations With Canada, 2022,


(NBC NEWS, Hackers linked to Chinese government stole millions in COVID benefits, Secret Service says,


(NPR National Security, From tracking Santa to Chinese spy balloons, here’s what we know about NORAD, 2023,

(Rand Corporation, Chinese Disinformation Efforts on Social Media,

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